The history of Palm Springs is as varied as those who live here and come to
visit. From the native Agua Caliente Cahuila Indians to the first pioneers
to the early Hollywood stars to the mid-century modernist architects to
celebrity mayor, Sonny Bono, to today’s rediscovery, Palm Springs remains an
historical and ecological wonder.
Palm Springs History
More than 2,000 years ago, Palm Springs' first residents were the ancestors
of today's Agua
Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians. One of many Cahuilla bands, the Agua
Caliente existed as peaceful hunters and gatherers, living off the land, and
adapting to the extremes of desert summers and mountain winters. Much of
tribal life centered on the lush vegetation and abundant water in the area
known as Indian Canyons, site of North America's largest natural fan palm
The Cahuilla’s first encountered non-Indians in 1774, as Juan Bautista de
Anza's expedition traveled through the area. In 1853, a government survey
party mapped Palm Springs and its natural hot springs mineral pool - now the
site of the Spa Resort Casino -and established the first wagon route through
the San Gorgonio Pass. The Cahuilla culture was with the 1863 smallpox
epidemic that killed thousands.
In 1877 as an incentive to complete a railroad to the Pacific, the U.S.
government gave Southern Pacific Railroad title to the odd-numbered parcels
of land for ten miles on either side of the tracks running through the
Southern California desert around Palm Springs.
The even-numbered parcels of land were given to the Agua Caliente, yet
federal law prohibited them from leasing or selling the land to derive
income from it. In 1884, Judge John Guthrie McCallum of San Francisco
arrived in Palm Springs with his family, seeking health for his tubercular
son. The first permanent non-Indian settler, McCallum purchased land from
Southern Pacific and built an elaborate aqueduct. His work to bring water to
the Coachella Valley foreshadowed the area's current importance as a rich
agricultural region. Dr. Welwood Murray built the first hotel, The Palm
Springs Hotel, in 1886.
Palm Springs continued attracting more visitors and residents. Congress
passed the Mission Indian Relief Act in 1891, authorizing the Secretary of
the Interior to make individual allotments from reservation lands. However,
it would be another 50 years before the Indians, taking their case to the
U.S. Supreme Court (Lee Arenas v. United States, 1944), would win the legal
rights to have allotments approved.
The success was short-lived due to the need for equalization of allotments
and federal laws denoting the length of leases on Indian lands. It was not
until President Eisenhower signed the Equalization Law in 1959 that tribes
could realize profits from their lands and develop the 99-year lease.
The Desert Inn Puts Palm Springs on the Map as a Tourist Destination
During these years Palm Springs grew rapidly. In 1909, Nellie
Coffman's Desert Inn opened, as did a garage for servicing the vehicles that
brought visitors from the East Coast and Los Angeles, and a school for the
children of a handful of year-round residents.
Sprinkled with Stardust
By the time it was incorporated in 1938, the Village of Palm Springs had
become world-famous as a winter playground for Hollywood stars like Frank
Sinatra, Marlene Dietrich, Bob Hope, Loretta Young. Today's stars like
Leonardo DiCaprio, Dakota Fanning, Halley Berry and Gwen Stefani continue to
seek rest and relaxation just hours away from the Hollywood glitz. European
royalty and business tycoons all come to enjoy the endless sunshine and
serenity of the desert.
During World War II, the desert became the training ground for General
George S. Patton's troops as they prepared to invade North Africa. El
Mirador Hotel, second home to the stars and the site of today's Desert
Regional Medical Center, served as Torney General Hospital, treating U.S.
wounded. Italian prisoners of war, housed at the adjoining detention camp,
labored at the hospital.
The airfield, built to handle military cargo and personnel planes, would
become Palm Springs Regional Airport. Once a small landing field and the
first major Indian land purchase following the 1959 Equalization Law, the
airport welcomed the 21st century as Palm Springs International Airport with
flights nationwide and to Canada.
The post-war era ushered in tremendous growth as Palm Springs' natural
environment was no longer a secret of just the wealthy. With tourism's
growth, attractions and resorts flourished. Development spread "down valley"
With the advent of air-conditioning, visitors and residents stayed